Framing is used to construct, refine, and deliver messages. How information is presented (the ‘frame’) influences and changes decision making and judgment about a subject. Frames consist of the words, images, metaphors, comparisons and presentation styles to communicate an issue. Frames provide people with a quick and easy way to process information to interpret a message. Developing an overall frame for messaging in a campaign gives you enormous power to focus attention and to influence the message receiver. Therefore, it pays to frame your key messages for best results.
These choices matter. They affect how people hear us, what they understand, and how they act.”
Essentially, we absorb new information by fitting it into the framework of something we already understand. People use mental shortcuts (heuristics) to make sense of the world. These mental shortcuts rely on ‘frames,’ which are internalized concepts and values that allow us to give meaning to new developments and information. These frames can be triggered by various elements, such as language choices and different messengers or images. These communication elements, therefore, have a major influence on decision making.
The US FrameWorks Institute summarizes framing succinctly: “Framing is the choices we make in what we say and how we say it:
These choices matter. They affect how people hear us, what they understand, and how they act.”
Even a simple choice of words influences people’s interpretation. For instance, do you have an old car or a vintage car? Have you made mistakes, or learnt lessons? Are you heading into your twilight years or your golden years? The choice of your words creates a frame or theme on which to base the message. Therefore, when you frame your key messages the ensuing communication will be more effective.
A famous example of visual framing is the Rubin vase (image, right), developed by Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin in 1915. The visual effect presents the viewer with two shape interpretations, each of which is consistent, but only one of which can be maintained at a given moment. If you focus on the white form you see a vase. If you focus on the black contours you can see the outline of two faces. This helps to show that people can perceive exactly the same scene or scenario in different ways. In view of this, frames are intended to influence people to perceive from one particular viewpoint instead.
At its most basic level, communication is about sharing information, which seems an impartial act. However, in recent years, researchers have found that language used in general communication is much less neutral than people realize. It is mainly a way for influencing people to agree with an opinion or at least to act in line with it. Even when we think we are simply describing something, we are often using language that influences people towards thoughts consistent with our view. For instance, when describing something simple like a news event or a movie, we use terms that reflect our own view, for instance ‘It’s a good movie,’ or, ‘it’s a long movie’ (which implies it is a bit boring). It is extremely difficult to be totally neutral in simple descriptions, and even more difficult in discussing more complex and emotive subjects found in issues and politics.
Robert Cialdini, professor emeritus of social psychology at Arizona State University, and New York Times best-selling author, discusses this further in his 2016 book, Pre-suasion – A revolutionary way to influence and persuade (page 100), referring to recent research that concludes:
…the main purpose of speech is to direct listeners’ attention to a selected sector of reality. Once that is accomplished, the listeners’ existing associations to the now-spotlighted sector will take over to determine the reaction. [He continues]…we should think of language as primarily a mechanism of influence; as a means for inducing recipients to share that conception or, at least, to act in accord with it.
Especially interesting are the linguistic devices that researchers have identified for driving attention to one or another aspect of reality. They include verbs that draw attention to concrete features of a situation, adjectives that pull one’s focus onto the traits (versus behaviors) of others, personal pronouns that highlight existing relationships, metaphors that frame a state of affairs so that it is interpreted in a particular way, or just particular wordings that link together targeted thoughts.
Framing is used in many professional disciplines including psychology, behavioral economics, sociology, government policy-making, business management, and organizational decision-making and negotiation.
Framing is central to the communication profession in areas such as employee communication, media relations, marketing communication, issue management, crisis communication, public health communication, and political communication. Intentionally or unintentionally, when you frame your key messages, they are more effective.
It is difficult to generalize about using frames because they can exist in so many forms for so many purposes.
Communication expert, Professor Matthew Nisbet of Northeastern University, states:
There is no such thing as unframed information, and most successful communicators are adept at framing…Accounting for framing should be a part of your overall content strategy.
Frames provide people a quick and easy way to process information. People use mental filters to make sense of incoming messages. This gives the sender and framer of the information enormous power to focus attention and influence how the receivers will interpret the message.
Frames provide meaning through selective simplification, by filtering people’s perceptions and providing them with a field of vision for a problem. Frames help us to interpret the world around us and represent that world to others. They help us organize complex topics and issues into coherent, understandable concepts. It is a form of agenda-setting.
Framing can be found in the viewing of things over different time periods or in relation to a specific past event, or in many other ways. Even if you are not aware of the concept of framing, you actually frame all the time. Even if both outcomes are the same, people tend to make different choices based on how a situation is framed.
Here are examples based on real-life messaging, which show some ways you can frame your key messages differently. Each frame below can form the basis for a whole communication piece consisting of one or more components based on that frame:
Framing in the South African Parliament, 22 April 2018
Honourable Madisha: Half of people in this parliament are stupid!
Speaker: Hon. Madisha, please withdraw that statement.
Hon. Madisha: I withdraw that statement. Half of the people in this parliament are not stupid!
Speaker: Thank you. Let’s proceed.
The following seven types of frames most suitable for PR use were identified by Kirk Hallahan in his paper, “Seven models of framing: implications for public relations,” Journal of Public Relations Research, Vol. 11: 3, pp, 205-242, 1999 (Online publication date: 19 November 2009). You can find a copy here. I have rewritten the content of Hallahan’s table from page 210, and have added the examples of PR messaging implications in the table below:
Many frames are based on the following:
Frame your key messages. Then take account of these message factors within each frame you have selected:
Metaphors are contained in most of the concepts of everyday life and should be used in framing for communication activities. You can think of your words in terms of metaphors to add strength to the frame. For instance, legendary US journalist, political commentator and former White House Press Secretary Bill Moyers (right) said in his email newsletter of 12 July 2020 that:
Joseph Campbell once told me: “If you want to change the world, change the metaphors.” That is, help people understand what’s new and strange by describing it as comparable to what they already know. Examples are:
These comments are a wonderful reminder of the power of metaphors, and how easy they are to use in your messaging frames.
Framing is used in both internal and external communication. Organizational development consultant Leandro Herrero says, “I put framing at the top of the list of ‘leadership tasks’,” and he gives an example of a pharmaceutical firm. How do you decide on the key messages about organizational purpose from all the ones available, such as:
All of these frames could be relevant and compatible. But they are all different, and each one could take the organization to different places strategically. They describe the purpose, priorities, and staffing differently. The key thing would be to work to closely support the stated mission or purpose of the organization.
What’s more, Herrero also classifies behavior as a framing activity within organizations:
…there is plenty of repeated experimental data showing, for example, how being helped (eg to fix a computer problem) increases the level of collaboration of that particular group of people with the people helping them. The helped-group increases collaboration with any other group afterwards, about any activity, compared with a control group that has not received help. ‘Helping’ is copied and spreads. It frames the future.
Many studies also show the difference between people in a group who receive a clear ‘thanks’, versus members of a control group who receive a neutral acknowledgement. The thanked group behaves more positively afterwards in ways that have no direct connection with the previous reason-for-the-thanks.” [This is a classic example of the power of employee recognition.]
If you would like to address a significant public issue, it is worth looking at the information available at frameworksinstitute.org, especially the page on framing. An example of the impact of framing in relation to government is the famous quote by President Ronald Reagan at his first inaugural address on 20 January 1981: “Government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.” This problem-solution frame about government has been a strong political principle for the Republican Party ever since.
The FrameWorks Institute suggests that strategic issue framing cover these elements:
An example of framing intended to change attitudes in society is the current FrameWorks Institute project aimed at reframing the concept of aging in the United States. Most people think of aging as deterioration, decline and dependency. Older people are perceived as being “over the hill,” and there is a whole cosmetics industry devoted to marketing products claimed to slow the aging appearance of people, eg “anti-aging” creams. Overall, Americans are subconsciously biased against older people, eg older job candidates (“old dogs can’t learn new tricks”).
Extensive research by FrameWorks has led to a new metaphor as a frame to reduce bias against older people. The researchers found that comparing aging to a process of “building momentum” changes how people understand aging.
By showing aging as a dynamic and forward-moving process, and in emphasizing the accumulation of “force” and “energy” – the momentum we gain as we build-up experience and insights – we can help people see aging in a more positive light.
Expect to see the metaphor in this frame successfully reducing people’s unconscious bias against older people in the future.
Organizational development expert Leandro Herrero reminds us that frame testing should be mandatory – because so much depends on it being done well. Not enough thought is given to this in internal communication, in particular.
The number of people you involve in testing your message will depend on the outcome you wish to achieve. Start by asking your team members to review the words to see if they can detect any possibly confusing words or phrases. Then test the text on as many others as you feel is useful.
If it is an internal message, test among employees from different areas of the organization. Externally, try to find some representative members of the target audience.
You don’t have to go overboard with testing, but it should always be done to some extent. If 10 representative people all give you similar responses, this will be a good guide. Their feedback will help you avoid confusion or misunderstanding of your messages. If the responses are varied, then your message is probably not coming across clearly. Take account of the feedback, and then retest the new message. This can take time, so allow time in your planning.
It is surprising how common words or phrases mean different things to different people, especially those people from a non-English speaking background. In teaching classes at university, I had to be very careful in writing questions for assignments and exams to allow for people from those different backgrounds who either would not fully understand the words or who would be likely to misinterpret them.
You can test messages in other ways as well. For example, you could pose the same questions listed above to a focus group. I find internal focus groups particularly helpful for determining messaging. Their contribution enables you to frame your key messages effectively. A/B testing will also reveal which of two (or more) messages your target audience members prefer.
Frame your key messages. Once you’ve developed each message, ask potential recipients these questions, especially when significant issues are at stake:
You can read further insights in my article on how to frame your key messages, “Framing of messages is essential for strong leadership.”
Top photo: Smashing Magazine.
By Silvia Arto, Vice President of the Global Alliance for Public Relations and Communication Management, Chair of the European Regional
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